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- Not obsessed with Napoleon's genius,Wellingtonwas sculpted to more human proportions, and
- He had none of the negative traits that are on the other side of greatness.
His character turned out to be more stable and enduring. He
- He had an inner confidence, a strong sense of self, and a belief in his own judgment that contributed greatly to his military genius. He had an "almost supernatural balance"
- Learned from failure and setback.
- Never repeat a mistake. In fact, his mistakes haunted him.
- had a big impact onEuropa posterior a 1815, and was largely responsible for
- Defeat of Napoleon, end of the 23 Years' War
- the restoration of the Bourbons and European stability, although France still experienced periodic turmoil
- Avoiding a punitive peace with France
- Restructuring and refinancing a bankrupt France
Though an extraordinary genius,Napoleoneras
- More ambitious, selfish and self-centered.
- Often unpredictable and irrational.
energy and drive
- Very energetic.
- It can handle a heavy workload.
- I responded to all correspondence the same day.
- insideWaterloo-Campaign(90 hours), I had 9 hours of sleep. On June 18, 1815, he was already at work at 3 am. To Ned Packenham, he was "the energy man". He once needed 14 days with only 48 hours of sleep.
- He preferred to do things himself. Be wary of subordinates' judgment, often with good reason.
- Please read carefully and in detail, including all shipments and registered documents.
- He studied Napoleon very closely and knew his tactics well.
energy and drive
- Extraordinary energy, but often very unpredictable.
- He could lead his army through waist-deep mountain passes in snow one day and sulk for hours the next.
- Extremely physically fit, officer well above average
- An exceptional knight even for his time, allowing him to move quickly across a battlefield. He once drove 300 miles over rough terrain just to explore.
- No to your great qualities.
- Not a great pilot, he's been shot down several times.
- However, he was able to show exceptional physical courage and determination.
- Often criticized by his older contemporaries for his sober lifestyle.
- I could go days without food and days without sleep.
- Drink moderately during the period
- He himself did little.
- Dictated and delegated letters.
marriage and women
- Not a huge success as a husband though
- He is very comfortable with women, and some of the most important insights into his character come from his correspondence with his confidants.
marriage and women
- His power attracted many admirers.
- Marriage to Josefina not very happy.
- Both serial scammers. Josephine divorced on dynastic grounds
- He had many love affairs and children from several mistresses.
- Although very shy, he had a reserved charm and rarely displayed his short temper, except in front of spoiled upper-class officers ("There's Nothing So Stupid as a Brave Officer").
- By no means will they. He avoided crowds trying to cheer him up and was embarrassed when his troops did.
- Beware of all praise and flattery
- He spoke clearly and directly, always using simple and direct language, without hiding uncomfortable truths.
- Enjoyed early in his career as an adviser to ministers and after 1815 by most crowned heads of Europe.
- He treated everyone with equal frankness, from kings and princes to his generals, ADCs and soldiers. This bluntness is often confused with insensitivity or rudeness.
- He is not comfortable around people. He liked to keep his distance
- He liked to attract admiration.
- He generally treated people as inferiors, including monarchs.
- It can be totally charming or totally gross.,what served its purpose
- He really hated war and took little pleasure in victory.
- He believed that political reforms would start a revolution and lead to demagoguery, dictatorship and more wars.
- Power, glory, victory and military conquest, its imperial image, succession and also a Bonaparte dynasty
- He divorced his wife Josefina to marry María Luisa, Princess of Austria.
- He surrounded himself with royal pomp and as emperor
- France bankrupt by extravagance and war
Wars fought to extort funds from conquered states
- He installed his largely incompetent and greedy brothers in high positions, e.g. as kings of conquered states
Your discreet responsible leadership
- the reorganization of the British and Portuguese armies into powerful armed forces
- the development of new fighting techniques
One of the greatest and most successful military commanders in history, he has never lost a battle in nearly 50 years.
- equal in strategy to Napoleon; his tactical superior and "the most impeccable commander ever" (Neibuhr).
Your magnetic genius motivates and organizes
- France's greatest talent, not seen since the days of Charlemagne
- sadly sacrificed one of the greatest armies the world has ever seen to his selfish genius
Undoubtedly one of the greatest military geniuses of all time, developing new strategies, tactics and techniques.
His extremely successful strategy has been used by generals in the past such as Fabius, the Roman general. However, he was very successful in applying overall strategy and as a commander.
- He thought long term and never lost sight of that.
- He evaded the enemy with quick maneuvers and brought them down.
- Fight avoided until the certainty of a decisive victory.
- Always choose the battlefield (exception:In the end)
- incoming troops. Avoid wasting them on heroic or risky tactics or dramatic victories (exception: Trials)
- He hid his troops so that the enemy would not know their exact strength and position (Exception: Assaye)
- It was high risk and very costly in troops.
- It was driven by political necessity.
- He needed the money he could extort to finance a bankrupt France.
- Alienated conquered states and populations making resistance inevitable
- He studied the terrain very carefully.
- He had an exceptional memory for details of landscape and geography and how to use them.
- First class.
- Best Example: Building the defensive lines of Torres Vedras before its withdrawal toPortugal,Saving your army and the entire campaign.
- Fresh and determined.
- He had exceptional self-control in battle.
- He could recognize a military situation immediately and react very coolly.
- Not a hero, but exposed to the same dangers as his men. He was hit twice by stray bullets. He had two horses killed below him at Assaye. His soldiers often begged him to take cover, fearing for their safety.
- He never sacrificed his troops for a quick victory.
- He reduced the chance of a victory that he knew would result in heavy casualties. (Exception: attempt where a quick maneuver and frontal charge shattered a force eight times your own)
- He openly admitted mistakes and learned from them.
- He never blamed his troops for the failure.
- Often tough on officers: "There is nothing more dangerous than a brave officer"
- He disliked the destructive elements of war.
- He hated the consequences, like reading the victim list, the "butcher's bill".
- Broke reading the Waterloo list
- He decided that Waterloo would be his last battle.
Some commentators diagnose him as a psychopath because he
- He seemed incapable of feeling remorse for the disasters he caused and the millions killed in the wars he waged.
- Abandoned projects turned difficult, like the Egypt campaign
- He frequently changed his mind and often gave confusing or contradictory orders.
- Unable to make close friends, he took advantage of those close to him (eg Bourienne, his classmate and faithful secretary). "Friendship" was a "meaningless word".
- He did not tolerate rivals and wanted to take all the credit for victories (e.g. Passepinte 'banished' after the Battle of Hohenlinden)
- Forget your mistakes quickly.
- He didn't learn from mistakes.
- I tend to blame others
- Never forget an injury.
- He took revenge disproportionately
- He has exhibited paranoid tendencies since childhood. His paranoia led to the establishment of a ruthless police state under Fouche.
- He inspired extreme loyalty but rarely returned it.
- He saw loyalty as something he was rightfully due.
- He tended to abandon or reject those who were loyal to him.
- He hated it when people left his service and he punished them without remorse (Bourienne). However, he could overlook someone's mistakes and shortcomings when they were useful to him.
- He developed a very sophisticated war machine.
- Total disregard for medical services and
- For many important battles he lacked medical supplies.
Tactics and tactical skill.
- He could read a battle very well.
- He never acted on impulse, but always resolutely and with great determination.
- He knew exactly where he needed to be on the battlefield.
Great contribution to military tactics.
- It concealed lines of infantry on the rear slope of a hill, protecting them from artillery and attacking infantry fire.
- He put them in the line of fire attacking infantry at a range of up to 25 meters.
- Final stage at Waterloo when allied infantry repulsed the Imperial Guard, inflicting 75% casualties
- The use of infantry squadrons against cavalry was not new, but he used it to great effect and accuracy at Waterloo when Wellington's squadrons withstood 5 massive cavalry charges in 2 hours.
Tactics and tactical skill.
Many of their tactics were developed early on.revolutionary warsof generals like Drout (d'Erlon) including
- Attack in column and crush the enemy lines of poorly trained and unmotivated troops led by senior generals and using old-fashioned tactics.
- Attack at unconventional times, such as in winter when there is heavy snowfall
Indeed, most of the military improvements attributed to Napoleon were developed and implemented by his marshals and generals.
Highly Motivated Troops French troops were feared throughout Europe, but Napoleon
- He had little regard for their lives and never forgave them.
- This demanded more and more commitment and loyalty from him personally.
- Sometimes cynical in his waste of troops, expecting them to lay down their lives in loyalty to him.
worst example: In a last ditch effort at Waterloo, he lied to the Imperial Guard, telling them the approaching army was Grunchys and roused the Guard into an unfounded charge in which 75% fell. The army was the Prussians.
The Imperial Guard were repulsed by the British Guard under Wellington's personal command, using his technique of hiding the infantry behind a hill until the last minute.
relationship with the troops
- He didn't appreciate being applauded by the troops: "What if they want to boo me?"
- He never spoke en masse to his troops
- Inspired by leadership and example, not speech. Knowing that he wanted to keep it made his troops trust him more.
- Troops always inspired by your presence
relationship with the troops
- He saw his troops as an expendable item in his conquests and squandered them in a way that often shocked his own marshals.
- While he has a long-term goal of conquest, he seems to have no long-term vision beyond subjugating Europe to France and subjecting France to his own rule.
Main strategic policy
Low-risk strategy with
- Save energy
- Avoid combat unless necessary and victory is assured. In 44 engagements as commander (1809-15) he never lost, although he admitted to winning one or two by lot.
Main strategic policy
High-risk strategy, with
- Massive armies and aggressive tactics.
- Quick, decisive and often surprising victories.
- Move huge armies quickly
- Attack quickly, often surprisingly and with great ferocity, inflicting huge losses.
- Avoid coordinating enemy forces and defeat them gradually.
The civilized game of European war had seen nothing like Bonaparte's aggressive strategy and tactics. Surprising victories in part because Europe did not accept that the war had changed and changed tactics.
Strategy driven by
Lack of UK government support because
- His family, the Wesleys (later the Wellesleys), were unpopular because they were Irish and controlled five seats in Parliament in London.
- The army is not popular. The Navy, the favorite of the British afterTrafalgar
Strategy driven by
- A need for glory, which he openly admitted and which he had to feed from victory to victory.
- Monetary needs of the conquered states, as France was largely bankrupt
- need for public approval.
- Victories and conquests masked corruption, incompetence and mismanagement at home
- The government frequently left Wellington short of resources or troops. He often complained of being at the mercy of the Whitehall copyists.
- However, he knew that high casualties would lead to his withdrawal and the end of his campaign.
- Very strong, especially when winning wars abroad and recovering riches.
- Fouchés police cracked down on opposition and royalist support
- The Opposition in Parliamentwhips, an ally of the Prince Regent, sympathized with the new France
- Despite the Whig experience, the Whigs tried to come to terms with Napoleon.Treaty of Amiens, and Napoleon's penchant for breaking treaties
- The monarchist scholarships (for example, the Vendée) never accepted it.
- To suppress opposition, he established a police state and hired Fouche as Minister of Police. Relentless but effective, Fouche was one of his traitors in 1815
- He still had 400,000 soldiers under arms, and
- In theory, at least, it could have defeated any army. However, most of these troops were used to prevent royalist revolts, which would certainly have occurred had the troops been withdrawn to fight the Allies.
- british pressrelatively free
- Campaign initially not well known and the British indifferent. Lots of press and public interest afterwards.
- Army, Campaign and Wellington rose in popularity with victories
- He controlled the French press and that of the conquered or confederated states.
The strategy required the support of
- Local population and irregular forces such as the Spanish "guerrillas"
- Regular forces like the Spanish and Portuguese in the Peninsular War and the Prussians, Dutch etc. during the 100 days.
- The strategy also required disciplined troops.
- The Luso-British in the Peninsular War
- Huge resources, usually extorted from conquered states in the form of taxes or "reparations".
- During the campaign, the army foraged, reducing the need for a supply train but slowing the army's advance while foraging. O
- Alienation of inhabitants of conquered countries
- For example, it led to massive resistance in Spain, Portugal andRussia
- They rarely lived off the land for fear of alienating the native population.
- all supplies bought and paid for, but sometimes not for long.
This policy and strategy was responsible for that
- Victory on the Peninsula, supported by civilians and guerrillas
- Attracting the local civilian population during the invasion of France in 1814
- Napoleon's defeat in the Russian and Saxon campaigns of 1812-14, when Prussian and Russian generals adopted Wellington's strategy and tactics (eg, General Barclay-Tolley of Russia, who turned out to give the Russians the upper hand). Until Waterloo there would be no more decisive battles that suited Napoleon.
British naval supremacy was crucial as it allowed the shipment of supplies to Lisbon and from there by land during its retreat behind the "Lines of Torres Vedras". This lifebuoy saved the army.
This necessary strategy
- A deep knowledge of the terrain/theater of war.
- A large number of requirements in the field of operations, which in turn limited the duration of these operations
- A psychological advantage derived from an invincibility myth. The enemy was "half defeated before the battle"
ErrorNo strategic mistakes, but some tactical ones. Though his improvisational skills or his veteran crew always saved him: "...they never let me down".
Big strategic mistakes. the worst were
- The invasion of Egypt, mainly to control the route to India and the East.
- The invasions of Spain and Portugal, ostensibly to deprive the United Kingdom of its resources.
- The invasion of Russia while hundreds of thousands of its troops in Spain were being depleted by Wellington and Iberian guerrillas.
What is the link between Napoleon and Wellington? ›
A leading political and military figure of the 19th century, the Duke of Wellington is best remembered for his defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo in 1815. As a general, he was renowned for his stunning defensive skills. His battle plans are still studied in military academies today.Did the Duke of Wellington like Napoleon? ›
Wellington in contrast famously said that Napoleon's presence on the battlefield “was worth forty thousand men”. Privately he criticised his military and political rule, referring to him as 'Buonaparte' to emphasise his non-French origins. “His whole life, civil, political and military, was a fraud'.What did Napoleon do to the Duke of Wellington? ›
At breakfast on the morning of the battle of Waterloo, the Emperor Napoleon declared that the Duke of Wellington was a bad general, the British were bad soldiers and that France could not fail to win an easy victory.What was the Duke of Wellington known for? ›
Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington is today more famous as a soldier than as a politician. In fact, as the Prime Minister, he was known for his measures to repress reform, and his popularity sank a little during his time in office. The Duke of Wellington was born in Dublin to the Earl and Countess of Mornington.How many times did Wellington fight Napoleon? ›
Napoleon Bonaparte and Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley never met or corresponded, and they fought only one battle directly against each other, on June 18, 1815. The fact that it was the Battle of Waterloo, which resulted in Napoleon's permanent removal from the French throne, cemented them together in history.Did the Duke of Wellington ever lost a battle? ›
Although not completely undefeated, he never lost a major battle. His greatest defeat came at the siege of Burgos in 1812, where he had hoped to prevent French forces concentrating.Who is Napoleon best friend? ›
Napoleon receives news of the death of his best friend, Marshal Lannes, at the Battle of Aspern-Essling, May 1809 (colour litho)Who is the closest relative to Napoleon? ›
Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, Prince of Montfort (birth name: Jean-Christophe Louis Ferdinand Albéric Napoléon; born 11 July 1986, France) is the head of the former Imperial House of France, and heir of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Emperor of the French.Did Napoleon and Duke of Wellington meet? ›
The Duke of Wellington and Napoleon were both personally in command throughout the battle – which ended 20 bloody years of the Napoleonic wars – fought through a long day and into the night on a rain sodden plain between two low ridges, on June 18 1815, but the great adversaries never met face to face.Where did the Duke of Wellington defeat Napoleon for the final time? ›
The Battle of Waterloo (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋaːtərloː] ( listen)) was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815, near Waterloo (at that time in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, now in Belgium). A French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition.
Who was better Wellington or Napoleon? ›
Napoleon commanded far larger armies than Wellington. His Russian force was nearly ten times larger than the largest ever commanded by Wellington. But he also lost far more men- 370,000 in the Russian campaign and 200,000 horses. Wellington was proud that his losses were far fewer.What qualities did the Duke of Wellington have? ›
Wellington was a strict disciplinarian and a meticulous planner, traits he would take in to his political career following his return to England after Waterloo. He served terms in two of the highest public offices as Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary.What was the Duke of Wellington also known as? ›
Alternate titles: Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Marquess of Douro, Marquess of Wellington, Earl of Wellington, Viscount Wellington of Talavera and of Wellington, Baron Douro or Wellesley, Arthur Wesley, Iron Duke, Sir Arthur Wellesley.Who did the most to defeat Napoleon? ›
At Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon Bonaparte suffers defeat at the hands of the Duke of Wellington, bringing an end to the Napoleonic era of European history.Did Napoleon ever lose a Battle? ›
He fought more than 80 battles, losing only eleven, mostly at the end when the French army was not as dominant. The French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812.Is there a Duke of Wellington today? ›
The Duke of Wellington's full title is The Duke of Wellington. His name is Arthur Charles Valerian Wellesley, and he is a current member of the House of Lords.Was Duke of Wellington a military genius? ›
In later campaigns and battles, including the Peninsular War and Waterloo, Wellington's genius for strategy, operations, and tactics emerged. For his success in the art of war, he came to rely on his art as a politician and tactician.How many battles did Napoleon win and lose? ›
Napoleon benefited from the large number of battles in which he led forces. Among his 43 listed battles, he won 38 and lost only 5. Napoleon overcame difficult odds in 17 of his victories, and commanded at a disadvantage in all 5 of his losses. No other general came close to Napoleon in total battles.Who was Napoleon scared of? ›
He was afraid of cats (possibly)
Oddly, a whole host of historic tyrants — Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Genghis Khan, Mussolini, Hitler and our man Napoleon — are reputed to have suffered from Ailurophobia, the fear of cats.
ENTJs are sometimes referred to as “the Commander” or “the CEO.” ISFP is the opposite personality type of ENTJ. Famous ENTJs include Kamala Harris, Napoleon Bonaparte, Harrison Ford, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Gates, and Carl Sagan.
What were Napoleon's last words? ›
He died two days later, his last words being, “La France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine” (“France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine”). In his will Napoleon asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British Governor, Hudson Lowe, said he should be buried on St.Does the Napoleon bloodline still exist? ›
The only other male members of the family are Charles's recently married (2013) brother, Prince Jérôme Napoléon (born 1957) and Jean-Christophe's son, Prince Louis Napoléon (born 2022). There are no other legitimate descendants in the male line from Napoleon I or from his brothers.What are three characteristics of Napoleon? ›
His character displays docility, honesty and a sense of gratitude. His conduct is blameless. Has regularly distinguished himself by his diligence in Mathematics. Shows sufficient acquaintance with History and Geography, but is weak at exercises and recreation.What disease stopped Napoleon? ›
In short, it will argue that the primary reason Napoleon failed to defeat the Russian army was because his forces were decimated by disease, specifically typhus, dysentery, and diphtheria.Did the Duke of Wellington invent the boot? ›
PIONEERING CUT. At some point in the early 1800s Arthur Wellesley, then Viscount Wellington, asked his shoemaker, Mr George Hoby of St James's Street, London, to make a boot which was easier to wear with the new trousers. Hoby removed the tassel and cut the boots lower to make them more comfortable for riding.What is the Duke of Wellington controversy? ›
That all changed in the early 1980s, when a traffic cone mysteriously started appearing on top of the Duke of Wellington's head. The origins of this practice are murky, but the most widely held belief is that a brave, drunk student scaled the statue after a night out in order to adorn the Duke with his new accessory.What was Napoleon's final and decisive defeat at the hands of the Duke of Wellington? ›
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on 18 June 1815 between Napoleon's French Army and a coalition led by the Duke of Wellington and Marshal Blücher. The decisive battle of its age, it concluded a war that had raged for 23 years, ended French attempts to dominate Europe, and destroyed Napoleon's imperial power forever.What caused Napoleon to lose at Waterloo? ›
Electrically charged volcanic ash short-circuited Earth's atmosphere in 1815, causing global poor weather and Napoleon's defeat, says new research. Historians know that rainy and muddy conditions helped the Allied army defeat the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo.How did Napoleon lost Waterloo? ›
Napoleon made a bold return from exile in 1815 only to lose his last shot at empire in a crushing defeat delivered by the Duke of Wellington and the combined forces of Europe.Was Napoleon the best general ever? ›
After 43 battles, he has a WAR score of more than 16, which blows the competition away. There can be no question: Napoleon is the greatest tactical general of all time, and the math proves it.
What did the Duke of Wellington eat? ›
One of the Duke of Wellington's favourite dishes was roast mutton. It reminded him of his time as a solider, when he ate quite a lot of boiled mutton.Why was Wellington known as the Iron Duke? ›
He also served as Prime Minister twice, firstly from 1828 to 1830, and again in 1834. The Duke of Wellington was known for his hard-line discipline and rule as a politician, which earned him the nickname the 'Iron Duke'.Why was he called Duke of Wellington? ›
The titles of Duke of Wellington and Marquess Douro were bestowed upon Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington, on 3 May 1814 after he returned home a hero following Napoleon's abdication. He fought some sixty battles during his military career. He was considered "the conqueror of Napoleon".Did the Duke of Wellington eat beef Wellington? ›
Wellington loved this dish so much it had to be served at every dinner. The name arose because its form resembles the Wellington boot. The dish is of central African origin, traditionally using goat meat, and was discovered by Wellington when he served there (he never did).What if Napoleon won Waterloo? ›
If Napoleon Bonaparte had won the war at Waterloo, the Russian force had been crushed by the French army, Poland would have been extended at the cost of Russia in 1814, and the war of peninsula war would have ended.What is the name Wellington connected to? ›
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo (1815): his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset.What is the big connection between the Napoleonic wars in Europe and independence movements in Latin America? ›
The Napoleonic Wars in Europe had a direct impact on the Latin American Independence movements, because the removal of the Spanish and Portuguese kings demonstrated to the colonies that they could rule themselves.Who is Napoleon's closest living relative? ›
The only other male members of the family are Charles's recently married (2013) brother, Prince Jérôme Napoléon (born 1957) and Jean-Christophe's son, Prince Louis Napoléon (born 2022). There are no other legitimate descendants in the male line from Napoleon I or from his brothers.
Renowned for its creative and cultural heart, Wellington is home to the national museum Te Papa Tongarewa, award-winning eateries, love of coffee, regional wine and craft beer, and boasts a jam-packed events calendar.Why is Wellington important? ›
Wellington is the country's transportation and communications hub. Rail and road services extend from it to all parts of North Island, and ferries to Picton link the capital to South Island. The city's international airport is the focal point of the country's internal aviation network.
What does the name Wellington stand for? ›
Origin:British. Meaning:From the wealthy estate.What were the two sides of the Napoleonic Wars? ›
On one side was the First Empire of France, Kingdom of Italy, and others. On the other side was Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, Sicily, and others.What does the American and French Revolution have in common? ›
Both the American and the French Revolutions aimed at bringing equality and liberty to the people. Both nations were attempting to gain freedom from their rebellion.What was the relationship between Napoleon and the Inquisition? ›
End of the Spanish Inquisition
In 1808, Napoleon conquered Spain and ordered the Inquisition there to be abolished. After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Ferdinand VII worked to reinstate the Inquisition but was ultimately prevented by the French government, which helped Ferdinand overcome a fierce rebellion.
Napoleon's family was of Italian origin. His paternal ancestors, the Buonapartes, descended from a minor Tuscan noble family who emigrated to Corsica in the 16th century and his maternal ancestors, the Ramolinos, descended from a minor Genoese noble family.Was Napoleon's family rich or poor? ›
Napoleon as a Child
Napoleone Buonaparte (later to be renamed as the more recognized, and more French “Napoleon Bonaparte“) came from a minor noble family; they weren't wealthy. His father, Carlo Buonaparte, was a lawyer and a social scrambler. He tried out lots of different business ventures with varying success.
If Napoleon Bonaparte had won the war at Waterloo, the Russian force had been crushed by the French army, Poland would have been extended at the cost of Russia in 1814, and the war of peninsula war would have ended.